Complete this test at home. Print it our or work on it on the computer. I will not collect this test so you do not need to print it out. You may use the internet or your book to work on it but ALL OF THESE QUESTIONS ARE TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM YOUR NOTES SO READING YOUR NOTES IS THE BEST WAY TO FIND ANSWERS. Next class period I will give a 20 questions quiz from these questions so find the answers and then study them well.

Also – you only need to do the China and India questions tonight. We will do Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt next time. If you want to get ahead tonight and work through them all you could though. See you in class.

Chinese Multiple Choice questions

1. Which famous philosopher was present during the Chou dynasty?

A) Confucius, a humble teacher and the most potent force in Chinese civilization

      B) Mozi, promotes universal love through mohism with the aim of mutual benefit

C) Masao Abe promoted Buddhism and academics in religious studies

D) Zhi Dun, a Chinese Buddhist, monk, and philosopher 

2. What lead to the Han Dynasties fall in Ancient China?

A) The Han ran out of money

B) Emperor Wudi raised taxes during rule

C) Peasants become very angry with economy

D) Faults lead to the downfall of the government

E)  All of the above answer choices 


3. What was the Silk Road in China used for mainly?

A.It lead from the capital to all important cities

B.It was used for traveling west for trade

C.It was a picture painted for the great emperor, to display his splendor

D.It was a road on which peasants sold silk to rich government officials

E.It was a place of fellowship for the Chinese middle class

4. What great thing did Shi Huangdi do before he died

A.he had the rest of the world destroyed

B.he had an army made of clay to protect his tomb

C.he had the entire empire make a parade to worship him

D.he held a banquet because he knew he was dying

5. What eventually brought about the fall of the Han civilization?

A)  A fiscal crisis (no money)

B)  Gov’t increased the tax amount

C)  Revolts lead to downfall of gov’t

D)  Each and every one of the above

6. Which of the following best describes the decline of the Han empire?’

A.An invasion of outside forces including Barbarians attacking at the northwestern border of the empire.

B.They were conquered by the Romans, but yet their culture remained intact

C.There was a financial crisis, tax raise, revolts, and 350 years of warlike states

D.Their leader, who they thought was dead, wasn’t really, but they still fell apart

7. What was the purpose of Aryan Vedas?

A.To aware the public of  knowledge on Hinduism

B.To aware the public of  new tax  code

C.To aware the public of knowledge on Buddhism

D.To inform on how to create Iron

8. Who was the first emperor of the Ancient Chinese civilization?

A. Qin Shi Huang, who introduced Legalism.

B. Shi Huangdi, who conquered all of China.

C. Wudi, who conquered all of Manchuria.

D. Shimpfri Ritogo, the founder of Chinese fast food.


9. Which of the following is not true about the Chou?

A] Silk was most important export of the Chou

B] A vast majority of the peasants lived on farms in family compounds

C] There civilization believed in a monotheistic religion 
D] They were a feudal civilization 

10. The empire that is known as the “golden age of China” is _________.

a.the Ch’in empire, under the rule of Shi Huangdi

b.the Shang empire, whose capitol was Anyang

c.the Mauryan Empire, which was founded by Chandragupta Maurya

d.the Han empire, which was ruled by Emperor Wudi


11. China traded what material what was highly valued in European culture? made by silkworms

b.iron weapons made by Chinese metal smiths

c.large bronze chariots pulled by hippos

d.Large clay pots used for carrying oil

12. China was the first to do what to silkworms?

a. Eat the abundance of silkworms

b. Make clothing out of silkworms

c. Breed many of the silkworms for the silk industry

d. Destroy all of the silkworms

13. The main philosophy of the Ch'in empire, practiced by the emperor Shi Huang Di, is…

a.Legalism, all people are bad and need someone to keep them in line

b.Confucianism, the family is in the center of society

c.Toism, nature in all

d.Judaism emphasizing monotheism

14. Which dynasty was the golden age of China?

a.the Chin was the height of Ancient China

b.the Chou was the height of Ancient China

c.the Han was the height of Ancient China

d.the Shang was the height of Ancient China


15. What were the social classes of Confucian China?

a.Priests/Warriors, kings and nobles, merchants, and farmers

b.Scholars and Government officials, farmers, artists, merchants

c.Priests/Warriors, working class, scholars, and businessmen

d.Working class, scholars, jesters, and nobles

16. Where did the Chou Dynasty originate?

a.North of the Huang He’s great river bend.

b.East of the Huang He’s great river bend.

c.South of the Huang He’s great river bend.

d.West of the Huang He’s great river bend.

17. What was Anyang?

a.The founder of the Shang Dynasty.

b.The capitol of the Shang Dynasty.

c.The money system of the Shang Dynasty.

d.The most powerful god in the Shang Religion.

18 .Which dynasty invented paper?

a.The Ch’in Dynasty in 105 BCE.

b.The Shang Dynasty in 105 BCE.

c.The Han Dynasty in 105 BCE.

d.The Chou Dynasty in 105 BCE.

19. How did the Han become the high point of Ancient China with wealth and luxury?

a.They used the organization and empire created by the Qin as a foundation for a luxurious civilization.

b.They used some of the Qin and some new techniques of civilization to form the Han.

c.They formed their own civilization after years of the Qin being declined

d.The Han used civilization from India to form mnay new technologies and inventions

20. How do the regional kingdoms during the Chou differ from the centralized government during the Ch'in?

a.Regional rule puts a bit of responsibility towards the King but most of the power is in the hands of local rulers who owe allegience to the king.

b.They put some responsibility to the King but the king isn't really interested in local rule so local provinces didn't have a government

c.The central government is in charge of everything in the regional/feudal system

d.There was little actual difference between the Ch'in and the Chou

21. Why are bronze and oracle bones so important to the Shang people?

a.Oracle bones are thought to predict future and it was the bronze age during the Shang Dynasty

b.The oracle bones made great art and the bronze age was during the Shang

c.The oracle bones were rotten and old so they were “wisdom” and the bronze were for the new army

d.The oracle bone made great art and the bronze was for kung fu fighting

22.What were some of the things the Shang dynasty grew?

a.They made grains, millet, rice, silk, and flax

b.They produced grains, millet, rice, corn, and wheat

c.They produced millet and rice, and made popular Chinese fashions

d.They grew silk, spices, corn and excellent wood for ships

Indian Multiple Choice questions

1. What were the Rock and Pillar Edicts that Ashoka created?

a.Large rocks and pillars that had the laws written on them.

b.50 foot pillars and short rocks with stories written on them.

c.Large rocks and pillars used as art.

d.Large buildings used for worship.

2. Which answer best describes Ashoka Maurya and what he did?

a.A brutal ruler that switched to Buddhism after slaughtering 100,000 Kalingans; he spread Buddhism throughout India and protected wildlife.

b.A brutal ruler; he converted to Buddhism after the Conquest of Kalinga, but eventually switched to Hinduism.

c.A savage ruler that converted to Buddhism and forced all to follow; he burned books and buried protestors alive.

d.A religious teacher; he spread Hinduism throughout India.

3.Before merging with India and changing themselves entirely, the Aryans were…

a.Nomadic people that focused on war and advanced weapons.

b.Nomadic people that traded with big cities to get what they want.

c.Another civilizations that focused on war and advanced weapons.

d.Another civilization that traded with other civilizations to get what they want.

4. Which status topped the caste system in India?






5. Siddhartha Gautama invented this religion that denounced materialism and his society’s current social values

a.Confucian emphasizing the Five Key Relationships

b.Jainism, beliefs similar to Buddhism

c.Buddhism, give up all desire, follow the 8 Rightfold Paths and achieve Nirvana

d. Hinduism, worship the representations of the Universal Deity

6. In Indian culture Brahmins were what?

a.Middle class farmers and trades

b.Lower class laborers

c.Upper class rulers

d.Upper class priests

7. Which of the following people founded the Gupta Empire?


b.Chandra Gupta


d.Chandra Gupta II


8. One of the great inventions that the Gupta Empire was responsible for was:

a.the decimal Pi

b.a small pox vaccination, that was lost after the empire fell

c.the numbers 0-9, which was awesome because zero is really important

d.All of the above listed choices


9. What was the reason the Aryans had Vedas?

A] To inform the common folk of the religion of Hinduism

B] To inform the common folk of the new tax code

C] To inform the common folk of the religion of Buddhism

D] To inform the common folk on military techniques

10. Which Indian dynasty was destroyed by a massive shift in the Indus Rivers?

A.Mohenjo Daro




11. Which religion became centralized in Indian life during the Gupta period?

A.Hinduism, which focused a lot on karma and darma

B.Ancestor worship, honoring your dead family members

C.Atheism, a general lack of belief in the supernatural

D.Buddhism, taught originally by Siddhartha Gautama

E.Taoism, an ancient religion originated in China

12 After the unification of India, Ashoka Maurya felt bad about his violence and...

A.He encouraged non-violence, passivist philosophy, and converted to Buddhism.

B.He tried to reduce conflicts.

C.He became extremely angry

D.He wished to increase their economy by trading silk, cotton, spices.

13 Why was Mohenjo-daro in ancient times most likely one of the important civilizations of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization?

A) Because the civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India.

B) Because it was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, and perhaps the world, during its peak.

C) Because Indus people spread and settled everywhere.

D) Because it had remarkable construction in architecture and urban infrastructure

14 In India’s social structure, what were the levels of India’s caste system? (Highest to lowest in India’s caste system)

A) Brahmins (priests, high level warriors), Kshatriyans (rulers, lower class warriors), Vaishyans (farmers, merchants), Sudras (laborers), Dalits (untouchables)

B) Kshatriyans (rulers, lower class warriors), Vaishyans (farmers, merchants), Sudras (laborers), Dalits (untouchables), Brahmins (priests, high level warriors)

C) Vaishyans (farmers, merchants), Sudras (laborers), Dalits (untouchables), Brahmins (priests, high level warriors), Kshatriyans (rulers, lower class warriors)

D)Sudras (laborers), Dalits (untouchables), Brahmins (priests, high level warriors), Kshatriyans (rulers, lower class warriors), Vaishyans (farmers, merchants) 

15 What were the main beliefs of Hinduism (first invented in India)

A.That if you don’t worship Buddha he will smite you

B.That your karma affects what you’re reincarnated as.

C.That you must be released of all desires

D.Both B and C

16.The difference between Karma and Dharma is:

a.Karma is a person’s bad side that comes to haunt them whenever it wants, and Dharma is the person’s good side and comforts them.

b.Karma is a person’s actions or deeds, while Dharma is a person's duty within the order of reality.

c.Karma is when a person does something wrong and good things happen because of it, and Dharma is when you are in a dream world and then reality strikes you.

d.Dharma is a person’s deeds or actions, while Karma is the order of reality

17. Social Stratification in the Inidan Caste system means:

a.The smarter you are, the more friends you will have.

b.The richer your parents are the better job you will have.

c.You will be the same level in society as your parents were.

d.You are an exact clone of your parents, but you will be higher in the social class.

18. What did the Mauryan Empire do to India politically that forced India into provinces?

a.It divided India into separate provinces ruled by governors for tax collection and law enforcement.

b.It divided India into 5 different provinces ruled by satraps

c.It brought India together socially and politically as one whole province

d.It split India off from the mainland of Asia to form an island province that ruled the world

19. What did the Chandragupta Maurya (the king of the empire) do after giving up the thrown in 301 BCE?

a.He became a Jain, one of the most serious and extreme Buddhists

b.He became a Buddhist, but started another religion after 3 years

c.He started building his own personal army and attempted to destroy the Mauryan Empire

d.He started his own religion and became a monk

20. How do we know today that the Indus Valley cities were centrally planned and thought out?

a.The streets were straight and it had a brick wall plumbing system thourghout the city-states.

b.The streets had signs and were straight, and the city had a map in the ground

c.The cities had monuments that pointed to different monuments that ran in a circle

d.People were buried in straight lines in the ground with miniature temples in the ground next to them

1. Mesopotamia’s environment…

a.was very fertile and produced many good mining resources

b.was dry unfertile ground and was not good for farming

c.flooded often and unpredictably

d.was mountainous and rocky


2. What are some problems that the Sumerians had to face by living near a River Valley?

a.Unpredictable Floods, Difficult communication from city to city

b.Regular Floods, Difficult communication between cities

c.Flash Floods, Difficult finding food, Difficulty staying safe from others.

d.Difficult to transport water, difficult finding food, Difficulty stays safe from others.

3. What world-changing discoveries did the Babylonian create and improve over time?

a.360 degree circles, 60 minute hours, astronomy

b.Algebra, 24 hour days, 360 degree circles

c.360 degree squares, 365 day years, Geometry

d.the month, calculus, 360 degree triangles

4.What was the main goal of the Persian civilization? How did this affect others?

a.The main goal of the Persian army was to gain wealth. This affected other civilizations because in order to gain wealth, the Persians had to conquer other’s lands and tax them.

b.The main goal of the Persian army was to gain land. This affected other civilizations because they had the land that the Persians wanted.

c.The main goal of the Persian army was to have the strongest army. This affected other civilizations because in order to be the best. The Persians had to eliminate the competition.

d.The main goal of the Persian army was to conquer the Greeks. This affected the Greeks for if they had lost the battles, they would have died.

5.What accomplishments is the Persian Kin, Cyrus the Great, known for?

a.Establishing the Persian Empire by conquering from the Nile to the Indus, being tolerant of those he conquered, and creating the Cyrus Cylinder.

b.Establishing the Persian Empire by conquering from the Nile to the Ganges, being tolerant of those he conquered, and creating the Cyrus Cylinder.

c.Establishing the Persian Empire by conquering from the Nile to the Indus, being tolerant of those he conquered, and creating the Cyrus Square.

d.Establishing the Persian Empire by conquering from the Nile to the Indus, killing whomever he conquered, and creating the Cyrus Square.

6. Which was one of the 2 main rivers in Mesopotamia that flooded unpredictably and made farming and trade difficult?





7. Babylon’s most famous leader, mentioned in the book of Daniel, made the city’s massive walls and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, was…






 8. Who was Sargon the First?

a.Great leader who conquered Babylon

b.First King of Sumer

c.Great Egyptian pharaoh

d.First king of Babylon


9. Which 7th wonder of the world in located in Mesopotamia?

a.The Pyramids located in Giza

b.The Lighthouse of Alexandria

c.The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

d.Statue of Zeus, the god

10. Persia’s leader, Darius I, was known for being _________.

a.tolerant of the people he conquered and ruled

b.a mean man who enjoyed killing for killing sake

c.a failure as a ruler in Babylon

d.a great military strategist

11. Darius the king of Persia accomplished all of the following except::

      A] Conquering Babylon

      B] Freeing the Hebrews and helping them rebuild

      C] Administered the empire using Satraps

      D] Building the Gate of the Lions 

12. What was the ruling style of the Mesopotamian Empire?

A. Primarily they were democratic in ruling

B. An oligarchy based upon land ownership.

C. An Empire based on a powerful navy

D. A very efficient patriarchicical monarchy often using Satraps


13. Which of the following paths connected Persia roughly from east to west?

A) Silk Road

B) Great Royal Road

C) Aqueduct System

D) Nile River 

14. What was the law that the Babylonian king Hammurabi made called?

A.Hammurabi’s Law for Splendid Living

B.Babylonian Rules, which was carved into a great pillar

C.The Code of Hammurabi, set in stone

D.Most Essential Laws of Life

E.The Law of the Land

15. What was the first law code with equal punishments before the law ( the first written legal code)?

A) Hammurabi’s Code in the Babylonian Empire

B) Sargon I laws in the Sumer Civilization

C) Nebuchadnezzar’s legal rules for the Chaldeans

D)Abraham’s written code for the Hebrews 

16. Babylon was one of the most important cities of the middle east, why was this city destroyed?

A) Because of Nabonidus the city was captured (538 B.C.) by Cyrus the Great.

B) Because of Nebuchadnezzar (562 B.C.), who wanted to rebuild it.

C) Because the Assyrians captured it , under Sennacherib (c.689 B.C.)

D)Because Hammurabi made it the capital of his kingdom of Babylonia, and no one liked it.  

17.The Babylonians ruled over which religious people?

a.The Jewish people.

b.They ruled over the Hebrews.

c.They ruled over the Muslims.

d.The Arab people.

Greek Multiple Choice questions

1 Which battle with Persia did Greece loose?

a.Marathon - 26 miles from Athens

b.Thermopylae where the famous 300 spartans died

c.Salamis a large navy battle

d.The battle of Jenkins ear

2 Sparta, the Greek city-state, was founded on what beliefs and values?

A.Strength, courage, endurance, and loyalty

B.Democracy, drama, beauty, and architecture

C.Family, friendship, love,  and romance

D.Work hard, love your wife, and have fun

3 In Ancient Greece, what were the factors that kept Greece city-states apart?

A) Geography had very rugged mountains

B) Rivalries between city-states made it so they couldn’t join together

C) All city-states had separate legal systems

D) City-states had independent calendars, money, weights and measurements

E) All of the above answer choices 

4 What type of government was Sparta?

A.a democratic monarchical oligarchy

B.primarily democratic rule

C.Government based off of the feudal system w/ very high taxes

A military based on democracy

5 What was a big difference between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta?

A.Spartans were more the philosophical type, Athenians loved battle

B.Athenians were more the philosophical type, Spartans loved battle

C.Athenians grew corn while Sparta grew wheat

D.Spartans were farmers and Athenians were all political activists

E.Athens was a barbaric place, Sparta thrived in peace

6 When did Athens and Sparta unite to defeat the Persians?

A) For the duration of the Peloponnesian wars  

B)  For the duration of the Carthaginian war

C)  For the duration of the school year

D)  For the battle of Thermopylae

7. What major accomplishment did the Aryans achieve?

A. They founded the basic beliefs of the religion Hinduism.

B. They invented the ruling of kings.

C. They open Pandora’s Box unto world.

D. They started the theory of only having one life.

8. Which of the following is not true of Hellenistic Greece?

A] They put great value on monotheism

B] They had many famous philosophers

C] They believed in an afterlife 
D] All of those are true of Hellenistic Greece

9. What was an ancient city state of the Greeks?

A. The ancient city state of Mycenae.

B. The ancient city of Rome.

C. The city state of Lyoleus

D. Huns, the militant based monarchy.

10. All of the following are things that the Greek city-states have in common except…

A) A common language

B) Similar religions

C) Similar government and legal systems

D) Similar enemies outside of Greece

11. Athens helped to develop the modern western culture in the areas in many areas such as: introducing the idea of Democracy

b.the image of modern beauty that we see in the western world today

c.inventing forms of drama that are still very popular today

d.all of the above

12. Which one of these brilliant minds called the Athenan city-state home?





e.All of the above

13. This kind of government united Greece and then ruled by?

a.A great Emperor who also conquered the Egyptians, Indians and Persians

b.A king that ruled with a centralized government

c.A pharaoh who killed everyone

d.A chief who ate the hearts of his foes

14. Socrates, an Athenian philosopher, taught that philosophy should teach

a.All people are is very important

b.Life is precious above all

c.Question anyone and anything in order to know yourself

d.Seek material wealth and power

15. Which 2 early civilizations inhabited early Greece, and initiated ancient Greek culture?

a.Minoans and Latins

b. Minoans and Mycenians

c. Mycenians and Etruscans

d. Latins and Etruscans

Ancient Rome Multiple Choice questions

1. Which Roman Emperor was infamous for hating Christians and splitting the Roman empire into 2 parts





2. What was one of the strengths of Rome?

a.The Egyptian cultural heritage

b.The low morals of the people

c.The high morals of the people

d.Their futuristic weapons using gunpowder

3. Which river allowed for trade in the early Roman Republic?

A.Euphrates River, forming part of the fertile crescent

B) Tiber River, connecting to the Mediterranean

C) Tiger River, forming the other part of the fertile crescent

D)Nile River, flooding the Nile Delta Valley 

4. Who was Julius Caesar?

a.Phoenician general who conquered Sparta

b.Roman general who was stabbed to death in the Senate

c.A famous gladiator in the coliseum

d.The first Roman Emperor who brought about the Pax Romana

5. Who was the first emperor of Rome?

a.Augustus adopted son of Julius

b.Emperor Diocletian

c.Marcus Antonius

d.Constantine the Great

6. What is true about the Roman Republic?

a.It didn’t protect anyone and was bound to fail

b.It was not strick and lacked morals and laws

c.The republic did not have an army or a stable government

d.The Republic was protected from invasions by its advantageous geography

7. How did Rome defeat Carthage to win the Carthaginian Wars?

A) They kidnapped Hannibal and sold him to China

B)  Rome completely destroyed Carthage in the end

C)  The Romans hid in Greece

D)  The Alps conquered Hannibal on his way over

8. A major impact of Ancient Rome on Western Civilization was that

      A. the Greeks and Romans succeeded in achieving a classless society, which was later copied in Western Europe

      B. Greek sculpture and Roman architecture were much admired and copied in the 18th and 19th centuries

   C. Greece and Rome transmitted Islamic philosophy to the areas they conquered

      D. Greek and Latin are still widely taught in universities throughout the West

9. Why did Constantine, the great Roman emperor, convert the entire empire to Christianity?

A.he saw a vision in the sky that told him too

B.he believed God helped him win a great battle

C.he had a dream that told him to convert his empire

D.all of the above

10. What was the impact of Christianity in the Roman Empire?

A) Christians organized and educated poor people

B) Christians swore loyalty to Rome

C) Christians spread throughout the empire after Nero converted

D)Christians primarily converted the rich and ignored the poor 

11. What was one of the things that people think led to the fall of Rome?

A.Disease of animals, which caused a great famine

B.Spies who discovered weak spots in the empire

C.Decline in morals, leading to much crime and laziness

D.Aliens who took over officials’ bodies and destroyed the citizens’ faith in the government

E.Poisoned wine, imported from Mesopotamia

12. Which is true of about the height of the Roman Empire 
A] They invented algebra and calculus

B] They were tolerant and excepting of the peoples they conquered

C] Used Buddhism after guilt over the violence of there wars

D] It came to an end with the Pax Romana or the times of suffering

13. Roman culture was largely influenced by which previous culture?





Egyptian Culture Multiple Choice qeustions

1. Which of the following is not true of the Egyptian lifestyle?

A] Built massive monuments and structures

B] Believed in preparing there dead for the after life

C] Had an accurate and functioning solar calendar

D] Generally didn’t encourage female opinions in politics

2. Which of the following accomplishments did King Menes achieve?

A.To commission the building of the Great Pyramids at Giza

B.Changed the religion from Monotheism to Polytheism

C.Married Cleopatra saving Egypt from Roman control

D.Unified both Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom


3. Who was the last pharaoh of Egypt before Egypt fell to Rome?

A.King Tut, who ruled from 1333 BC – 1324 BC

B.Cleopatra, who married Mark Antony

C.Hatshepsut, who is thought to have reigned about 21 years

D.Semerkhet, who ruled around 2950 BC

E.Mentuhotep II, the son of Intef III

4. What was the ancient structure in Egypt?

A) Massive step pyramids that were “steps to the god” (Great Pyramid of Giza)

B) The Hanging Gardens of Babylon created by Nebuchadnezzar

C) The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

D)The Colossus of Rhodes (created for Greek god Helios)

5. What was the Egyptian social structure (from highest to lowest)?

A.Farmers/slaves, middle class, nobles, priests, pharaoh

B.Brahmins, Kshatriyans, Vaishyans, Sudras, Dalits

C.King, nobles, priests, farmers, middle class

D.Pharaoh, priests, nobles, middle class, farmers/slaves

6.  Which great conqueror crushed Egypt and made Alexandria the intellectual center of the world?

a.Atilla the Hun

b.Alexander the Great

c.Loique the Macedonian

d.Phillip II the Macedonian

7. Pharaohs were considered what in ancient Egypt?

a.Men that were sent by the gods

b.Leaders of a royal blood line

c.Men that were stronger than everyone else

d.rulers and gods on earth

8. What river in Egypt flooded on a predictable basis?

A)  The Nile River

B)  The Huang He River

C)  The Amazon River

D)  The Tiber River 

9.Why did Egypt grow massive wealth from the lands around the Nile?

a.The Nile flooded predictably depositing silt and rich clay for better and bigger farming

b.The Nile had predictable flooding, but they could not travel up the Nile very well

c.Egyptians used fertilizer which deposited on the shores and made crops grow larger

d.The Nile was centrally located along major trade routes

10.What did the people of Egypt use papyrus so much for?

a.The used it for mats, rope, sandals, baskets and paper

b.They used it for paper and house roofing

c.The ate it in stews and meals

d.The had special operations for the Pharoahs secret agents