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Unit 2 Test


  1. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects a major difference between Arab expansion in the seventh century and Viking expansion in the ninth century?

a)      Arab expansion relied most heavily on diplomacy, while Viking expansion relied most heavily on military might

b)      Viking expansion tended to occur in areas with few large urban centers, while the Arab expansion occurred in areas with comparatively larger urban centers

c)      Arab expansion was financed by religious tithing, while Viking expansion was financed by profit from the silk trade

d)      Viking expansion was limited to Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, while Arab expansion was limited to  the Arabian Peninsula and Persia

e)      Arab expansion relied heavily on the technology of the cannon, while Viking expansion relied heavily on dragon boats


  1. Which of the following is true of commerce in the Indian Ocean during the time period 1000-1450?

a)      Chinese merchants dominated the trade routes of the Indian Ocean

b)      There was very little commercial activity in the Indian Ocean

c)      Merchants from Europe dominated the trade routes of the Indian Ocean

d)      Following the rise of the Mongols during the thirteenth century, the volume of Indian Ocean commerce fell sharply

e)      Indian Ocean commerce flourished and was conducted by a mixture of Asian, Middle Eastern and East African merchants


  1. Which of the following lists three places Ibn Battuta, the fourteenth-century Muslim traveler, visisted?

a)      The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Japan

b)      The Arabian Peninsula, France and India

c)      India, Mali, and Persia

d)      India, Persia and Poland

e)      England, Iraq and Mali


  1. Which of the following had the greatest manufacturing capacity during the time period 1000-1450?

a)      Japan

b)      India

c)      China

d)      Western Europe

e)      Russia


  1. The term “samurai” describes men in feudal Japan who were most like the men in feudal Europe known as

a)      lords of the manor

b)      Catholic bishops

c)      serfs

d)      knights

e)      merchants


  1. In the period between 1000 and 1450, which of the following were two occupations pursued by large numbers of African and European women?

a)      midwife and healer

b)      military leader and farmer

c)      scribe and tax collector

d)      long-distance trader and merchant

e)      metalworker and textile manufacturer


  1. Trade spurred the introduction of both Islam and Hinduism to what is now called

a)      Japan

b)      Brazil

c)      Pakistan

d)      Indonesia

e)      Saudi Arabia


  1. Renaissance Italy and the Islamic Middle East after the decline of the Abassid Empire in the mid-tenth century are important examples of which of the following?

a)      political unity and cultural creativity

b)      political fragmentation and cultural creativity

c)      political unity and the decline of religion

d)      political fragmentation and the decline of religion

e)      political unity and the rise of secularism


  1. Which of the following statements about the Mongol Empire of the thirteenth century is true?

a)      The invasion of Japan was attempted but was unsuccessful

b)      The number of Buddhists and Muslims in Asia dropped significantly as a result of Mongol persecution ( no many Mongols converted to these religions)

c)      In China the Mongols eliminated the Chinese scholar-official class (didn't eliminate – just didn't trust them or let them do much)

d)      The Mongols conquered Constantinople (no)

e)      Ibn Battuta’s writings described in detail life in the court of Genghis Khan (Marco Polo did this)


Comparison of Zheng He's "Treasure ships" (1405) to Columbus's Santa Maria (1492).


  1. The illustration above shows which of the following about the fifteenth century?

a)      The relative number of ships produced by the Hangzhou shipyards and the Genoese shipyards

b)      The beginning of a long period of Chinese domination of Indian Ocean trade

c)      The meeting of Vasco de Gama and Zheng He

d)      The relative size of the European caravel and the Ming treasure ship

e)      The use of the lateen sail




  1. The type of wall decoration illustrated above would most commonly be found in a

a)      stupa

b)      mosque

c)      cathedral

d)      temple

e)      marketplace

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the tenets of Islam is accurate?

a)      Islam is a monotheistic religion

b)      Muslims worship Muhammad

c)      Pilgrimage to Mecca commemorates the birth of Muhammad

d)      The Qur’an is meant to supplement Jewish and Christian scriptures

e)      Friday is an obligatory day of rest for Muslims


  1. Which of the following best describes patriarchal gender systems?

a)      women are not allowed to work

b)      women are confined to the home

c)      women can be bought and sold

d)      women are inferiors and must be protected by men

e)      women are not allowed by men to serve as political rulers


  1. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share which of the following?

a)      They are polytheistic religions

b)      They recognize the divine nature of certain prophets

c)      They revere both Mecca and Jerusalem as pilgrimage sites

d)      They recognize the existence of Adam and Moses

e)      They share the Talmud and the Gospels as sacred texts


  1. Which of the following was a common feature of most Asian and European philosophies during the period 1000 to 1450?

a)      a close association with religion

b)      Emphasis on experimental science

c)      Reliance on ideas of individual freedom

d)      Substantial scholarly exchange of ideas among all world cultures

e)      Wide availability of printed books


  1. After the expansion of Islam into Africa, an organized Christian presence remained in

a)      Egypt and Ethiopia

b)      Morocco

c)      Mauritania and Tunisia

d)      the areas along the Silk Road

e)      Algeria


  1. Which of the following contributed to the Chinese government’s decision to stop voyages of exploration in the Indian Ocean in the early fifteenth century?

a)      armed resistance from Arab navies

b)      Lack of sufficient Chinese goods for trade

c)      The destruction of the Chinese fleet by typhoons

d)      Government concern with domestic problems and frontier security

e)      Fear of the spread of the plague to China


  1. Which of the following languages came into existence after 1000 as the direct result of expanding global trade patterns?

a)      Arabic

b)      Chinese

c)      Latin

d)      Sanskrit

e)      Swahili (Africa trading with Muslims)


  1. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Mongol Empire?

a)      It attempted to impose Mongol religious beliefs and practices on conquered peoples.

b)      It reestablished the Silk Road between East Asia and Europe

c)      It attempted to create a self-contained economic system by banning all merchants from non-Mongol territories

d)      It developed a sophisticated bureaucracy staffed by talented Mongols

e)      It established and maintained clear rules of succession that insured the unity of the empire


  1. Commerce was a key mode of exchange between which of the following pairs of political entitites?

a)      The Mayan Empire and the Song Dynasty

b)      Ghana and the Mongol Empire

c)      Japan and the Byzantine Empire

d)      The Crusader states and the Fatimid caliphate

e)      Venice and the Aztec Empire


  1. Marco Polo described which of the following at Kublai Khan’s court that he had not encountered in Europe?

a)      The use of spies in foreign nations

b)      The interest of the Khan in the international sea trade and European shipbuilding techniques

c)      The use of paper money and coal and the practice of frequent bathing

d)      The attachment of the Khan to the use of horses for military purposes

e)      The austerity of the design of the Khan’s palace


  1. Which two of the following vied for influence in China during the Tang Dynasty?

a)      Buddhism and Shintoism

b)      Shintoism and Hinduism

c)      Confucianism and Hinduism

d)      Buddhism and Confucianism

e)      Buddhism and Hinduism


  1. Which of the following was not true of nomadic groups?

a)      Nomadic societies were patriarchal

b)      They had some social hierarchy

c)      Most of the themes of nomadic art centered on their animals

d)      Nomadic societies had little positive influence on settled people

e)      Nomadic societies engaged in peaceful trade


  1. The most significant effect of Russia’s conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy was

a)      the trade network that Russia’s acceptance of Christianity opened for it

b)      the way it slowed the development of a Russian national identity

c)      the way the Church’s teaching that God vests power in the ruler strengthened the tsars’ control over the state

d)      the power it gave the Eastern Church in dealing with the Roman Catholic Church

e)      its influence on Russian architecture


  1. Which of the following development most directly resulted from the Crusades

a)      Growth of Italian city-states

b)      Spread of the Black Death

c)      Vasco de Gama’s voyage to India

d)      Columbian Exchange

e)      Restriction of European traders to treaty ports


  1. All of the following are true of the major Amerindian civilizations in Central and South America prior to the arrival of the Europeans EXCEPT

a)      economies based on trade (although they did trade, agriculture was the most important)

b)      monumental buildings

c)      urban centers

d)      differentiation of labor

e)      social stratification


  1. Which of the following is a fundamental teaching of Islam?

a)      The Shari’a is a compilation of the Sunna, the teachings of Muhammad, and Quran

b)      Muslim converts may continue to worship their former deities

c)      The five-times-a-day prayer services that Muslims must observe are led by a priest called an imam

d)      Everyone is equal under Islam

e)      Social responsibility is less important than adherence to ritual


  1. The introduction of papermaking into Europe is an example of cultural diffusion

a)      from China by way of the Eurasian trade route

b)      from Japan by way of the Arab-Indian trade route

c)      through the Columbian Exchange

d)      through the Triangular Trade route

e)      from the Middle East as part of the Eurasian trade route


  1. A major area of contention between the papacy and secular rulers was the

a)      establishment of the Church of England by Henry VIII

b)      rulers’ determination to appoint Church officials in their nations

c)      heavy tithes the rulers placed on churches with their borders

d)      practice of trying clerics in secular rather than Church courts

e)      rulers’ disinterest in supporting the Crusades


  1. The position of Chinese women

a)      resulted in greater freedoms under Neo-Confucianism

b)      changed markedly between the seventh and thirteenth centuries

c)      was defined by Confucianism

d)      was more restrictive under the Tang than under the Song

e)      declined in regions where Buddhism was popular


  1. Japanese feudalism

a)      brought a temporary end to internal conflicts

b)      increased the power of the emperor

c)      revolved around the power of the samurai as warlords

d)      saw the beginnings of a centralized Japan

e)      united peasant and elite classes


  1. Compared to Korean attitudes toward the Chinese, those of the Japanese (help – email if you figure this out)

a)      more greatly appreciated the centralization of the Chinese government

b)      were more devoted to Confucianism

c)      were more favorable to the civil service examination

d)      demonstrated a desire to show respect to the Chinese emperor

e)      were similar in their desire to become part of the Chinese trading system


  1. In contrast to Japanese feudalism, Western European feudalism

a)      included women in the feudal relationship (female rulers were common in Europe compared to Japan)

b)      created a reciprocal relationship between lord and vassal

c)      was based on a noncontractual relationship

d)      did not lead to centralized regional governments

e)      endured for a long period


  1. Medieval Europe

a)      extended local schools found on the manor

b)      developed new banking institutions from multicultural contacts

c)      saw the rise of universities after the conclusion of the Hundred Years’ War

d)      produced urban areas that rivaled those of the Eastern empires

e)      produced uniquely Christian architectural forms


  1. Mongol rule in Russia and China differed in that

a)      in China, the Mongols maintained Chinese traditions of isolation from foreigners

b)      Eurasian trade routes under Mongol protection connected Russia more than China to Western European trade routes

c)      the Mongols became more involved in administration in China than in Russia (Russia was more of a tribute state than a conquered state)

d)      the Mongols were more interested in controlling trade in China than they were in Russia

e)      Russia advanced culturally under Mongol rule while China became increasingly backward

  1. Historians studying linguistic syncretism would be most interested in

a)      the voyages of the Malay sailors

b)      the writings of Renaissance philosophers

c)      the Polynesian migrations

d)      the Bantu migrations (their language spread throughout Africa as they moved and merged with the local languages)

e)      the Yuan dynasty


  1. The Black Death

a)      was most devastating in North Africa

b)      originated in Europe

c)      changed the course of political institutions

d)      spread solely along routes of Mongol conquest

e)      produced large loss of life in India


  1. The Yuan Dynasty was brought down by all of the following EXCEPT

a)      foreign resistance to the Mongol Peace

b)      bubonic plague

c)      economic distress

d)      inefficient administration

e)      a breakdown in external security


  1. The Renaissance

a)      was a movement of uniquely Western origins due to the preservation of documents solely by Church monasteries

b)      began in the Eastern Roman Empire

c)      was a result of the Crusades

d)      represented a complete break from medieval traditions

e)      was a period of classical tradition rather than independent innovation


  1. Both the Aztecs and Incas

a)      entered into marriage for political reasons

b)      gained the cooperation of subject peoples

c)      showed limited signs of urbanization

d)      lacked a merchant class

e)      were tribute empires


  1. In 1215, the Magna Carta

a)      was the most complex world map of its kind

b)      sailed to India with a crew of only seven highly-trained navigators

c)      granted English nobles certain rights and privileges

d)      granted English commoners voting rights

e)      replaced the French Constitution as the supreme law of the land


  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the Crusades?

a)      racial and religious prejudice

b)      geopolitical conflict between Europe and the Middle East

c)      the Black Death

d)      religious fervor

e)      the personal greed of many Europeans to gain wealth and land


  1. The Hanseatic League

a)      was a trade union based in the Mediterranean region

b)      fought in the Middle East during the Crusades

c)      was a powerful banking house in Italy

d)      dominated trade in the Baltic region (Northern Europe)

e)      traded in diamonds

  1. Women in medieval Europe

a)      all lacked property rights

b)      had equality before the law, especially in matters of reproductive rights

c)      has some legal protections, but their rights often depended on where they lived and which class they belonged to

d)      could become members of the clergy

e)      could enter religious life only in Orthodox Byzantium


  1. A chief characteristic of Islamic states from 1000 to 1400 was

a)      political unity

b)      the consolidation of democracy

c)      political chaos

d)      steady strengthening of political power

e)      the weakening of Turkish control over Islamic lands


  1. Which of the following places in Africa remained Christian despite the spread of Islam on the continent?

a)      Marrakesh

b)      Swahili city-states

c)      Mali

d)      Ethiopia

e)      Tunisia


  1. What was the Umayyad attitude to other religions?

a)      The Umayyads converted to Christianity, but continued to permit the open worship of Islam

b)      Christianity and Judaism were suppressed as heresies, but other communities were permitted to retain their religions

c)      The Umayyads suppressed all religions within their territories other than Islam

d)      Zoroastrians and Hindus were never accepted

e)      The Umayyads displayed tolerance towards the religions of the dhimmi peoples.(dhimmi means people of the book and refers to Christians and Jews)


  1. Which of the following was NOT a reason used by the Ming dynasty to halt the trading expeditions?

a)      the expense of building the new capital at Beijing

b)      the opposition of the scholar-gentry and bureaucracy

c)      the growing military expenses of the campaigns against the Mongols

d)      the technological inferiority of Chinese ships and navigation

e)      the traditional preference of the Chinese for Asian products


  1. Following the assertion of Vietnamese independence from China in the tenth century, what aspects of Chinese culture were retained by Vietnamese rulers?

a)      Chinese family organization

b)      the Chinese administrative system based on the Confucian examination system

c)      the successful suppression of the peasantry

d)      Chinese popular culture, such as cockfights

e)      a highly centralized administrative system manned by a powerful scholar-gentry

  1. Which of the following developments was NOT a result of the improved economy of the High Middle Ages?

a)      Some peasants were able to throw off the most severe constraints of manorialism, becoming almost free farmers

b)      Rising trade permitted the redevelopment of commerce within the Mediterranean and beyond

c)      Conflicts between peasants and the landlords became rare, if they did not disappear altogether

d)      Urban growth allowed more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities, including banking

e)      A money economy began to replace the traditional barter system.